St. John the Baptist (Saint of the Day of Friday 24th June 2016)

Picture of Saint John The Baptist
Full title: Saint John the Baptist in the Wilderness Artist: Attributed to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Date made: 1660-70 Source: http://www.nationalgalleryimages.co.uk/ Contact: picture.library@nationalgallery.co.uk Copyright © The National Gallery, London

John the Baptist was a contemporary of Christ who was known for evangelization and his baptizing of Jesus Christ.

John the Baptist was born through the intercession of God to Zachariah and Elizabeth, who was otherwise too old to bear children. According to scriptures, the Angel Gabriel visited Elizabeth and Zachariah to tell them they would have a son and that they should name him John. Zachariah was skeptical and for this he was rendered mute until the time his son was born and named John, in fulfillment of God’s will.

When Elizabeth was pregnant with John, she was visited by Mary, and John leapt in her womb. This revealed to Elizabeth that the child Mary carried was to be the Son of God.

John began public ministry around 30 AD, and was known for attracting large crowds across the province of Judaea and around the Jordan River. When Jesus came to him to be baptized, John recognized him and said, “It is I who need baptism from you.”

Jesus told John to baptize Him anyway, which he did, whereupon the heavens opened, and the Spirit of God was seen like a dove. The voice of God spoke, saying, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

John instructed his followers to turn to Christ, calling Him the “Lamb of God” and these people were among the first Christians.

Following his baptism of Christ, John’s popularity grew so much that he alarmed King Herod. Herod ordered him arrested and imprisoned.

John spoke with Herod on several occasions and condemned his marriage to his half-brother’s wife.

This condemnation would be his downfall as King Herod promised to grant a wish to his daughter. In revenge for John the Baptist’s condemnation of her mother’s scandalous marriage to Herod, she asked for John’s head. King Herod reluctantly obliged. John the Baptist died sometime between 33 and 36 AD.

John the Baptist’s feast day is June 24, and the anniversary of his death is August 29 and is sometimes celebrated with a second feast. John the Baptist is the patron saint of Jordan, Puerto Rico, French Canada and many other places.

 

More about St. John the Baptist from Wikipedia

 

John the Baptist (Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Ioánnes (h)o vaptistés or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων,Ioánnes (h)o vaptízon,[6][7][8][9][10] known as the prophet Yahya in the Quran),[11] also known as John the Baptizer,[12][13][14] was a Jewish itinerant preacher[15] in the early first century AD. John is revered as a major religious figure[16] in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá’í Faith,[17] and Mandaeism. He is called a prophetby all of these traditions, and is honoured as a saint in many Christian traditions.

John used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement.[18] Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus.[19][20] Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John[21][22][23]and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus’ early followers had previously been followers of John.[24] John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus.[25] Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypseand practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism,[26] although no direct evidence substantiates this.[27]

According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself,[28] and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus,[29] since John announces Jesus’ coming. John is also identified with the prophetElijah.[30]

Contents

  • 1 Gospel narratives
    • 1.1 In Mark
    • 1.2 In Matthew
    • 1.3 In Luke and Acts
    • 1.4 In the Gospel of John
    • 1.5 Comparative analysis
  • 2 In Josephus’s Antiquities of the Jews
  • 3 Relics
  • 4 Religious views
    • 4.1 Bahá’í view
    • 4.2 Christianity
      • 4.2.1 Early Jewish Christian sects
      • 4.2.2 Catholic Church
      • 4.2.3 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon)
      • 4.2.4 Eastern Orthodox Church
    • 4.3 Gnostic and anthroposophic views
    • 4.4 Islam
      • 4.4.1 In the Qur’an
        • 4.4.1.1 Name
    • 4.5 Mandaeans
    • 4.6 Unification Church
  • 5 In art
    • 5.1 In poetry
    • 5.2 In music
    • 5.3 In film and television
  • 6 Commemoration
    • 6.1 As a patron saint
    • 6.2 Festivity
    • 6.3 Locations, churches, and other establishments in his name
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Sources
    • 9.1 Books on John the Baptist
    • 9.2 Islamic view
    • 9.3 Passages in the Quran
  • 10 External links

Gospel narratives

See also: Baptism of Jesus and Beheading of St. John the Baptist

John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes. The Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew, and Luke) describe John baptising Jesus; in theGospel of John it is implied in John 1:32-34.

In Mark

The Preaching of St. John the Baptist by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from theBook of Isaiah (in fact, a conflation of texts from Isaiah, Malachi and Exodus)[31] about a messenger being sent ahead, and a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as wearing clothes of camel’s hair, living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, and says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit.

Jesus comes to John, and is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how; as he emerges from the water, the heavens open and the Holy Spirit descends on him ‘like a dove’. A voice from heaven then says, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased.” (Mark 1:1-8)

Later in the gospel there is an account of John’s death. It is introduced by an incident where the TetrarchHerod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It then explains that John had condemned Herod for marrying Herodias, the ex-wife of his brother (named here as Philip). Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who ‘liked to listen’ to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a ‘righteous and holy man’.

The account then describes how Herod’s daughter Herodias (NRSV; other translations refer to the girl as the daughter of Herodias) dances before Herod, who is pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, and his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John’s disciples take the body away and bury it in a tomb.(Mark 6:17–29)

There are a number of difficulties with this passage. The Gospel wrongly identifies Antipas as ‘King’[32]and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod.[33]Although the wording clearly implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as “Herod’s daughter, Herodias”. Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is ‘difficult’, many scholars see this as the original version, corrected in later versions and in Matthew and Luke.[33][34][35]Josephus says that Herodias had a daughter by the name of Salome.

Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark apparently did not speak, he is likely to have got it from a Palestinian source.[36]There is a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains, especially given the alleged factual errors.[37] Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested, executed, and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus.[38]

In Matthew

St. John the Baptist Preaching,c. 1665, by Mattia Preti

The Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah,[39] moving the Malachi and Exodus material to later in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus.[40] The description of John is taken directly from Mark (“clothing of camel’s hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey”), along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptise with the Holy Spirit “and fire”.(Matthew 3:1-12)

Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching “the kingdom of heaven is at hand” and a “coming judgment”.

Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, and adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, and that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples.[41] Matthew’s approach is to shift the focus away from Herod and onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias’ insistence, Matthew describes him as wanting John dead.[42]

In Luke and Acts

Main article: Nativity of St. John the Baptist

John the Baptist (right) with child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo

The Gospel of Luke adds an account of John’s infancy, introducing him as the miraculous son of Zechariah, an old man, and his wife Elizabeth, who was past the menopause and therefore unable to have children.[43][44] According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabriel to Zechariah, while he was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since he is described as a priest of the course of Abijah and Elizabeth as one of the daughters of Aaron,[45] this would make John a descendant of Aaron on both his father’s and mother’s side.[46] On the basis of this account, the Catholic as well as the Anglican and Lutheran liturgical calendars placed the feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.[47]

There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and Raymond E. Brown has described it as “of dubious historicity”.[48] Géza Vermes has called it “artificial and undoubtedly Luke’s creation”.[49] The many similarities between the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and the Old Testament account of the birth of Samuel suggest that Luke’s account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel.[50]

Post-nativity

Unique to the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist explicitly teaches charity, baptizes tax-collectors, and advises soldiers.

The text briefly mentions that John is imprisoned and later beheaded by Herod, but the Gospel of Luke lacks the story of a step-daughter dancing for Herod and requesting John’s head.

The Book of Acts portrays some disciples of John becoming followers of Jesus Acts 18:24-19:6 a development not reported by the gospels except for the early case of Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother John 1:35-42

In the Gospel of John

The fourth gospel describes the John the Baptist as “a man sent from God” who “was not the light”, but “came as a witness, to bear witness to the light, so that through him everyone might believe”.[51] John clearly denies being the Christ or Elijah or ‘the prophet’, instead describing himself as the “voice of one crying in the wilderness”.[52]

Upon literary analysis, it is clear that John is the “testifier and confessor par excellence“, particularly when compared to figures like Nicodemus.[53]

Jesus’s baptism is implied but not depicted. Unlike the other gospels, it is John himself who testifies to seeing “the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him”. John explicitly announces that Jesus is the one “who baptizes with the Holy Spirit” and John even professes a “belief that he is the Son of God” and “the Lamb of God”.

The Gospel of John reports that Jesus’ disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification.[54] In this debate John argued that Jesus “must become greater,” while he (John) “must become less”.[55]

The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus’ disciples were baptizing more people than John.[56] Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as “a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light”.[57]

Comparative analysis

The prophecy of Isaiah

Although Mark’s Gospel implies that the arrival of John the Baptist is the fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah, the words quoted (“I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way — a voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’”) are actually a composite of texts from Second Isaiah, the Book of Malachi and the Book of Exodus. Matthew and Luke drop the first part of the reference.[31]

Baptism of Jesus

The gospels differ on the details of the Baptism. In Mark and Luke, Jesus himself sees the heavens open and hears a voice address him personally, saying, “You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy”. They do not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. Although, other incidents where the “voice came out of heaven” its recorded it was for the sake of the crowds it was heard audibly in addition, John did say in his witness that he did see the spirit coming down “out of heaven”. John 12:28-30, John 1:32

In Matthew, the voice from heaven does not address Jesus personally, saying instead “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased.”

In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend as a dove, testifying about the experience as evidence of Jesus’s status.

John’s knowledge of Jesus

John’s knowledge of Jesus varies across gospels. In the Gospel of Mark, John preaches of a coming leader, but shows no signs of recognizing that Jesus is this leader. In Matthew, however, John immediately recognizes Jesus and John questions his own worthiness to baptize Jesus. In both Matthew and Luke, John later dispatches disciples to question Jesus about his status, asking “Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another?” In Luke, John is a familial relative of Jesus whose birth was foretold by Gabriel. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God.

John and Elijah

Matthias Grünewald, detail of the Isenheim Altarpiece
See also: Matthew 3:4

The Gospels vary in their depiction of John’s relationship to Elijah. Matthew and Mark describe John’s attire in a way reminiscent of the description of Elijah in 2 Kings 1:8, who also wore a garment of hair and a leather belt. In Matthew, Jesus explicitly teaches that John is “Elijah who was to come” (Matt. 11:14 – see also Matt. 17:11–13); many Christian theologians have taken this to mean that John was Elijah’s successor. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist explicitly denies being Elijah.[58] In the annunciation narrative in Luke, an angel appears to Zechariah, John’s father, and tells him that John “will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God,” and that he will go forth “in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:16–17).”

In Josephus’s Antiquities of the Jews

An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the Antiquities of the Jews (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):[59]

Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews irate, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.[60]

The earliest known reference to this passage can be found in the early third century when it is quoted byOrigen in Contra Celsum. According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for a defeat Herod suffered c. 36 A.D. Divergences between the passage’s presentation and the biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been “purified beforehand by righteousness” is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4).[61] Biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan differentiates between Josephus’s account of John and Jesus, saying, “John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise.” To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John’s movement.[62]

Relics

See also: Beheading of St. John the Baptist § Relics

Nabi Yahya Mosque in Sebastia, near Nablus, West Bank, the traditional burial site

The burial-place of John the Baptist was traditionally said to be at the Nabi Yahya Mosque (Saint John the Baptiste Mosque) inSebaste in current Palestinian territories, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the 4th century. The historians Rufinus and Theodoretus record that theshrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on 27 May 395, they were laid in the basilica newly dedicated to the Forerunner on the former site of the temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by piouspilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there.

What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus[63] and Symeon Metaphrastes say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus (in accordance with Josephus). Other writers say that it was interred in Herod’s palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine I, and thence secretly taken to Emesa where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453. However, the decapitation cloth of St. John is kept at the Aachen Cathedral. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of St. John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found.

Shrine of John the Baptist,Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
  • Several different locations claim to possess the severed head of John the Baptist. The current official place for the Catholic Church is the Shrine of Saint John the Baptiste (Nabi Yahya in Arabic) inside the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus;.[64] The place was visited by Pope John Paul II in 2001 who “paused for a minute’s silent meditation at the tomb of St John the Baptist”.[65] Previous to that the catholic Church used to believe that it was kept in the San Silvestro in Capite in Rome;[66] and then that it was held by the Knights Templar at Amiens Cathedral in France (brought home by Wallon de Sarton from the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople), at Antioch in Turkey (fate uncertain). Other traditions assume that it was in Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany (official residence of the Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1385 to 1918).[66] or even the parish church at Tenterden in Kent, where it was preserved up until the Reformation.

A Calcutta Armenian kisses the hand of a priest of St. John the Baptist, Chinsurah
  • The saint’s right hand, with which he baptised Jesus, is claimed to be in the Serbian Orthodox Cetinje monasteryin Montenegro; Topkapi Palace in Istanbul;[66] and also in the Romanian skete of the Forerunner on Mount Athos. The saint’s left hand is allegedly preserved in the Armenian Apostolic Church of St. John at Chinsurah, West Bengal, where each year on “Chinsurah Day” in January it blesses the Armenians of Calcutta.[67] A crypt and relics said to be John’s and mentioned in 11th- and 16th-century manuscripts, were discovered in 1969 during restoration of the Church of St. Macarius at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes, Egypt;[68] Additional relics are claimed to reside in Gandzasar Monastery’s Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, in Nagorno Karabakh.

Other obscure and surprising claim relates to the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where the Baptist’s head appears on the official coat-of-arms. A legend first recorded in the late 16th century and reported in William Camden’s Britannia accounts for the town’s place-name, as ‘halig’ (holy) and ‘fax’ (face), by stating that the first religious settlers of the district brought the ‘face’ of John the Baptist with them.[69]
Also, in 2010, bones were discovered in the ruins of a Bulgarian church in the St. John the Forerunner Monastery (4th–17th centuries) on the Black Sea island of St. Ivan and two years later, after DNA and radio carbon testing proved the bones belonged to a Middle Eastern man who lived in the 1st century AD, scientists said that the remains could conceivably have belonged to John the Baptist.[70][71] The remains, found in a reliquarium are presently kept in the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral in Sozopol.[70][72]

Religious views

Bahá’í view

Bahá’ís consider John to have been a prophet of God who like all other prophets was sent to instill the knowledge of God, promote unity among the people of the world, and to show people the correct way to live.[73] There are numerous quotations in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, Founder of the Bahá’í Faithmentioning John the Baptist. He is regarded by Bahá’ís as a lesser Prophet.[17] Bahá’u’lláh claimed that his Forerunner, the Báb, was the spiritual return of John the Baptist. In his letter to Pope Pius IX, Bahá’u’lláh wrote:

“O followers of the Son! We have once again sent John unto you, and He, verily, hath cried out in the wilderness of the Bayán: O peoples of the world! Cleanse your eyes! The Day whereon ye can behold the Promised One and attain unto Him hath drawn nigh! O followers of the Gospel! Prepare the way! The Day of the advent of the Glorious Lord is at hand! Make ready to enter the Kingdom. Thus hath it been ordained by God, He Who causeth the dawn to break.”[74]

John is believed to have had the specific role of foretelling and preparing the way for Jesus. In condemning those who had ‘turned aside’ from him, Bahá’u’lláh, compared them to the followers of John the Baptist, who, he said, ‘protested against Him Who was the Spirit (Jesus) saying: “The dispensation of John hath not yet ended; wherefore hast thou come?” Bahá’u’lláh believed that the Báb played the same role as John in preparing the people for his own coming. As such Bahá’u’lláh refers to the Báb as ‘My Forerunner’, the Forerunner being a title that Christians reserve for John the Baptist.[75] However, Bahá’ís consider the Báb to be a greater Prophet (Manifestation of God) and thus possessed of a far greater station than John the Baptist.

Christianity

John the Baptist, by Juan de Juanes (es), c. 1560

John the Baptist, byAndrea del Sarto, 1528

John the Baptist,Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Rome

Christians believe that John the Baptist had a specific role ordained by God as forerunner or precursor of Jesus, who was the foretold Messiah. The New Testament Gospels speak of this role. In Luke 1:17 the role of John is referred to as being “to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.” In Luke 1:76 as “…thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways” and in Luke 1:77 as being “To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins.”

There are several passages within the Old Testament which are interpreted by Christians as beingprophetic of John the Baptist in this role. These include a passage in the Book of Malachi 3:1 that refers to a prophet who would prepare the way of the Lord:

“Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.” — Malachi 3:1[76]

and also at the end of the next chapter in Malachi 4:5–6 where it says,

“Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.”

The Jews of Jesus’ day expected Elijah to come before the Messiah; indeed, some modern Jews continue to await Elijah’s coming as well, as in the Cup of Elijah the Prophet in the Passover Seder. This is why the disciples ask Jesus in Matthew 17:10, ‘Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?.’ The disciples are then told by Jesus that Elijah came in the person of John the Baptist,

“Jesus replied, “To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands.” Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist”. — Matthew 17:11–13

(see also 11:14: “…if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who was to come.”)

These passages are applied to John in the Synoptic Gospels.[77][78][79] But where Matthew specifically identifies John the Baptist as Elijah’s spiritual successor (11.14, 17.13), the gospels of Mark and Luke are silent on the matter. The Gospel of John states that John the Baptist denied that he was Elijah.

“Now this was John’s testimony when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not deny, but confessed freely, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.” — John 1:19–21

Early Jewish Christian sects

Among the early Judaistic (or Gnostic, according to Epiphanius in Panarion, part 30) Christian groups theEbionites held that John, along with Jesus and James the Just—all of whom they revered—were vegetarians.[80][81][82][83][84][85] Epiphanius of Salamis records that this group had amended their Gospel of Matthew, known today as the Gospel of the Ebionites, to change where John eats “locusts” to read “honey cakes” or “manna”.[86][87]

Catholic Church

A ‘Head of St John’, in Rome

Tomb of St. John the Baptist at aCoptic monastery in Lower Egypt. The bones of St. John the Baptist were said to have been found here.

The Catholic Churchcommemorates St. John the Baptist on two feast days:

  • June 24 –Nativity of St. John the Baptist
  • August 29 –Beheading of St. John the Baptist

Some Catholics have held to a belief that John the Baptist never sinned,[citation needed]though this has never been a point of doctrine[citation needed] and is not binding in belief upon any adherent as is the sinlessness of Mary.[citation needed] In her Treatise of Prayer, St. Catherine of Siena includes a brief altercation with the Devil regarding her fight due to the Devil attempting to lure her with vanity and flattery. Speaking in the first person, Catherine responds to the Devil with the following words:

…humiliation of yourself, and you answered the Devil with these words: ‘Wretch that I am! John the Baptist never sinned and was sanctified in his mother’s womb. And I have committed so many sins…

— Catherine of Siena, , A Treatise of Prayer, 1370.[88][89]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon)

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that modern revelation confirms the biblical account of John and also makes known additional events in his ministry. According to this belief, John was “ordained by the angel of God” when he was eight days old “to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews” and to prepare a people for the Lord. Mormons also believe that “he was baptized while yet in his childhood.”[90]

Joseph Smith said: “Let us come into New Testament times—so many are ever praising the Lord and His apostles. We will commence with John the Baptist. When Herod’s edict went forth to destroy the young children, John was about six months older than Jesus, and came under this hellish edict, and Zecharias caused his mother to take him into the mountains, where he was raised on locusts and wild honey. When his father refused to disclose his hiding place, and being the officiating high priest at the Temple that year, was slain by Herod’s order, between the porch and the altar, as Jesus said.”[91][92]

The LDS Church teaches that John the Baptist appeared on the banks of the Susquehanna River nearHarmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith andOliver Cowdery on May 15, 1829, and ordained them to the Aaronic Priesthood.[93][94] According to LDS doctrine, John’s ministry has operated in three dispensations: he was the last of the prophets under the law of Moses; he was the first of the New Testament prophets; and he was sent to confirm the Aaronic Priesthood in our day (the dispensation of the fulness of times). Mormons believe John’s ministry was foretold by two prophets whose teachings are included in the Book of Mormon: Lehi[95] and his son Nephi.[96][97]

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern Orthodox icon John the Baptist — the Angel of the Desert(Stroganov School, 1620s)Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

The Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament prophets, thus serving as a bridge between that period of revelation and the New Covenant. They also teach that, following his death, John descended into Hades and there once more preached that Jesus the Messiah was coming, so he was the Forerunner of Christ in death as he had been in life. Orthodox churches will often have an icon of St. John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory.

The Eastern Orthodox Church remembers Saint John the Forerunner on six separate feast days, listed here in order in which they occur during the church year (which begins on September 1):

  • September 23 — Conception of St. John the Forerunner[98]
  • January 7 — The Synaxis of St. John the Forerunner. This is his main feast day, immediately after Theophany on January 6 (January 7 also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956)
  • February 24 — First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
  • 25 May — Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
  • June 24 — Nativity of St. John the Forerunner
  • August 29 — The Beheading of St. John the Forerunner

In addition to the above, September 5 is the commemoration of Zechariah and Elizabeth, St. John’s parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes October 12 as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799).

Gnostic and anthroposophic views

In Gnosticism, John the Baptist was a “personification” of the Old Testament prophet Elijah. Elijah did not know the True God (as opposed to the Abrahamic God), and thus had to be reincarnated in Gnostictheology. As predicted by the Old Testament prophet Malachi, Elijah must “come first” to herald the coming of Jesus Christ. Modern anthroposophy concurs with the idea that the Baptist was a reincarnation of Elijah, (cf. Mark 9:11–13),[99] Matthew 11:13–14,[100] Luke 7:27[101] although the Gospel of Johnexplicitly denies this (John 1:21).[102][103]

Islam

“Yahya” redirects here. For other persons, see Yahya (name).

John is also honored as a prophet in Islam as Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā (Arabic: يحيى بن زكريا‎‎), or “John, son of Zechariah”. He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the word of God, and a prophet who would herald the coming of Jesus.[104] His father Zechariah was also an Islamic prophet. Islamic tradition maintains that John was one of the prophets whom Muhammad met on the night of the Mi’raj,[105] his ascension through the Seven Heavens. It is said that he met John and Jesus in the second heaven, where Muhammad greeted his two brothers before ascending with archangel Gabriel to the third heaven. John’s story was also told to the Abyssinian king during the Muslim refugees’ Migration to Abyssinia.[106]According to the Qur’an, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.[107]

In the Qur’an

In the Qur’an, God frequently mentions Zechariah’s continuous praying for the birth of a son. Zechariah’s wife, mentioned in the New Testament as Elizabeth, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible.[108] As a gift from God, Zechariah (or Zakaria) was given a son by the name of “Yaḥya”, a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah’s prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesis was born six months later,[109] renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Qur’an says:

(His prayer was answered): “O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before.”
He said: “O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?”
He said: “So (it will be) thy Lord saith, ‘that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'”
(Zakarya) said: “O my Lord! give me a Sign.” “Thy Sign,” was the answer, “Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights.”

— Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), verse 7[110]

John was exhorted to hold fast to the Scripture and was given wisdom by God while still a child.[111] He was pure and devout, and walked well in the presence of God. He was dutiful towards his parents and he was not arrogant or rebellious. John’s reading and understanding of the scriptures, when only a child, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time.[108] Muslim exegesis narrates that Jesus sent John out with twelve disciples,[112] who preached the message before Jesus called his own disciples.[109]The Qur’an says:

“O Yaḥya! take hold of the Book with might”: and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth,

— Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 12[111]

John was a classical prophet,[113] who was exalted high by God, for his bold denouncing of all things sinful. Furthermore, the Qur’an speaks of John’s gentle pity and love and his humble attitude towards life, for which he was granted the Purity of Life:

And piety as from Us, and purity: He was devout,
And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.
So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!

— Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 13–15[107]

John is also honored highly in Sufism as well as Islamic mysticism, primarily because of the Qur’an’s description of John’s chastity and kindness.[114] Sufis have frequently applied commentaries on the passages on John in the Qur’an, primarily concerning the God-given gift of “Wisdom” which he acquired in youth as well as his parallels with Jesus. Although several phrases used to describe John and Jesus are virtually identical in the Qur’an, the manner in which they are expressed is different.[115]

Name

It has been claimed that the Quran is mistaken in saying that John the Baptist was the first to receive this name (Quran 19:7–10), since the name Yoḥanan occurs many times before John the Baptist.[116]However, according to Islamic scholars, “Yaḥyā” is not the same name as “Yoḥanan”.[117]

The exegetes frequently connected the name with the meaning of “to quicken” or “to make alive” in reference to John’s mother’s barrenness, which was cured by God, as well as John’s preaching, which, asMuslims believe, “made alive” the faith of Israel.[118]

The usage of the name Yuḥanna is well attested in the western Arabian peninsula. In the well-documented Najran Pact one of the fourteen chiefs was Yuḥannas. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that any Arab Christian would have used the name Yahya prior to the Quran’s usage of it.[citation needed][dubious ]

However, the Quran also mentions a root used in the Hebrew version of the name, ‘Yohanan’ יוֹחָנָן(Yahweh is gracious). Sura Maryam: 12–13 describes the virtues of Yahya: وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا – وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً(And We gave him judgement, while yet a boy – And affection from Us, and purity.) Here ‘Ḥanān’ (حنان, Affection) is an Arabic word corresponding to the same root used in the Hebrew/Aramaic ‘Yohanan’. It is also the only time this word is used in the Quran.[citation needed][dubious ]

Mandaeans

John the Baptist is considered the chief prophet of the Mandaeans, and plays a large part in some of their writings,[119] including the Ginza Rba and the Draša D-Iahia (The Mandaean Book of John). They view John as the only true Messiah, and are opposed to Jesus. The Mandaean scriptures state: “If the carpenter [Jesus] has joined together the god, who then has joined together the carpenter?”[120]

Unification Church

The Unification Church teaches that God intended John to help Jesus during his public ministry in Judea. In particular, John should have done everything in his power to persuade the Jewish people that Jesus was the Messiah. He was to become Jesus’ main disciple and John’s disciples were to become Jesus’ disciples. Unfortunately John didn’t follow Jesus and continued his own way of baptizing people. John’s failure to follow Jesus became the chief obstacle to the fulfillment of Jesus’ mission.[121]

In art

Puvis de Chavannes, The Beheading of St John the Baptist, c. 1869

Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais, 1849–50

Wood Sculpture of John The Baptist’s Head by Santiago Martinez Delgado.

Cristofano Allori’s John the Baptist in the desert

The beheading of St. John the Baptist is a standard theme in Christian art,[10] in which John’s head is often depicted on a platter, which represents the request of Herod’s stepdaughter, Salome.[122] He is also depicted as an ascetic wearing camel hair, with a staff and scroll inscribed Ecce Agnus Dei, or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it.[15] In Orthodoxicons, he often has angel’s wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as a messenger.[123]

The Baptism of Christ was one of the earliest scenes from the Life of Christ to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art, and John’s tall, thin, even gaunt, and bearded figure is already established by the 5th century. Only he and Jesus are consistently shown with long hair from Early Christian times, when the apostles generally have trim classical cuts; in fact John is more consistently depicted in this way than Jesus. In Byzantine art the composition of the Deesis came to be included in every Eastern Orthodoxchurch, as remains the case to this day. Here John and the Theotokos (Mary) flank a Christ Pantocratorand intercede for humanity; in many ways this is the equivalent of Western Crucifixions on roods and elsewhere, where John the Evangelist takes the place of John the Baptist (except in the idiosyncraticIsenheim Altarpiece). John the Baptist is very often shown on altarpieces designed for churches dedicated to him, or where the donor patron was named for him or there was some other connection of patronage – John was the patron saint of Florence, among many other cities, which means he features among the supporting saints in many important works.

St John the Baptist, from a medieval book of hours

St. John the Baptist (c. 1513-16),Leonardo da Vinci

Sculpture of St John the Baptist byAlonso Cano

A number of narrative scenes from his life were often shown on the predella of altarpieces dedicated to John, and other settings, notably the large series in grisaillefresco in the Chiostro dello Scalzo (it), which was Andrea del Sarto’s largest work, and the frescoed Life byDomenico Ghirlandaioin the Tornabuoni Chapel, both in Florence. There is another important fresco cycle by Filippo Lippi in Prato Cathedral. These include the typical scenes:[124] theAnnunciation toZechariah, John’s birth, his naming by his father, the Visitation, John’s departure for the desert, his preaching in the desert, the Baptism of Christ, John before Herod, the dance ofSalome, and his beheading.

His birth, which unlike the Nativity of Jesus allowed a relatively wealthy domestic interior to be shown, became increasingly popular as a subject in the late Middle Ages, with depictions by Jan van Eyck in theTurin-Milan Hours and Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel being among the best known. His execution, a church feast-day, was often shown, and by the 15th-century scenes such as the dance of Salome became popular, sometimes, as in an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem, the interest of the artist is clearly in showing the life of Herod’s court, given contemporary dress, as much as the martyrdom of the saint.[125] Salome bearing John’s head on a platter equally became a subject for the Northern Renaissance taste for images of glamorous but dangerous women (Delilah, Judith and others),[126] and was often painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder and engraved by the Little Masters. These images remained popular into the Baroque, with Carlo Dolci painting at least three versions. John preaching, in a landscape setting, was a popular subject in Dutch art from Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his successors.

Statue of St John carved out of a blackberry tree by Pietro Paolo Azzopardi – 1845. Xewkija

As a child (of varying age), he is sometimes shown from the 15th century in family scenes from the life of Christ such as thePresentation of Christ, the Marriage of the Virgin and the Holy Kinship. Leonardo da Vinci’s versions of the Virgin of the Rockswere influential in establishing a Renaissance fashion for variations on the Madonna and Child that included John, probably intended to depict the relative’s reunion in Egypt, when after Jesus’ Flight to Egypt John was believed to have been carried to join him by an angel.[citation needed] Raphael in particular painted many compositions of the subject, such as theAlba Madonna, La belle jardinière, Aldobrandini Madonna,Madonna della seggiola, Madonna dell’Impannata, which were among his best-known works. John was also often shown by himself as an older child or adolescent, usually already wearing his distinctive dress and carrying a long thin wooden cross – another theme influenced by Leonardo, whose equivocal composition, reintroducing the camel-skin dress, was developed by Raphael Titian andGuido Reni among many others. Often he is accompanied by a lamb, especially in the many Early Netherlandish paintings which needed this attribute as he wore normal clothes. Caravaggio painted an especially large number of works including John, from at least five largely nude youths attributed to him, to three late works on his death – the great Execution in Malta, and two sombre Salomes with his head,one in Madrid, and one in London.

Amiens cathedral, which holds one of the alleged heads of the Baptist, has a biographical sequence in polychrome relief, dating from the 16th century. This stresses the execution and the disposal of the saint’s remains.

A remarkable Pre-Raphaelite portrayal is Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais. Here the Baptist is shown as a child, wearing a loin covering of animal skins, hurrying to bring a bowl of water to soothe the injured hand of Jesus. Artistic interest enjoyed a considerable revival at the end of the 19th century with Symbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and Puvis de Chavannes (National Gallery, London). Oscar Wilde’s play Salome was illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, giving rise to some of his most memorable images.

Aubrey Beardsley’s The Climax, depicting Salome with the head of St John the Baptist.

In poetry

The Italian Renaissance poet Lucrezia Tornabuoni chose John the Baptist as one of biblical figures on which she wrote poetry.[127]

In music

  • This Is the Record of John, by English Tudor composer Orlando Gibbons is a well-known part-setting of the Gospel of John for solo voice, choir and organ or viol accompaniment.
  • The reformer Martin Luther wrote a hymn based on biblical accounts about the Baptist, “Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam” (1541), base for a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach for thefeast day on 24 June, Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7 (1724).
  • S. Giovanni Battista (scores) (St. John the Baptist) is a 1676oratorio by Alessandro Stradella.
  • In popular music, the song John the Baptist (Holy John) by Al Kooper on his album New York City (You’re a Woman) is about John the Baptist. The song John the Baptist (Holy John) was also recorded by Blood, Sweat & Tearsfor their album Blood, Sweat & Tears 4.

In film and television

John the Baptist has appeared in a number of screen adaptations of the life of Jesus. Actors who have played John include Robert Ryan in King of Kings (1961),[128] Mario Socrate in The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964),[129] Charlton Heston in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965),[130] David Haskell inGodspell (1973),[131] Michael York in Jesus of Nazareth (1977),[132] and Andre Gregory in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988).[133]

Commemoration

See also: Nativity of St. John the Baptist

The Coat of arms of the City ofWrocław features the severed head of John the Baptist, the city’spatron saint.

As a patron saint

Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of Jordan: his beheading is said to have taken place in Machaerus in central Jordan.

Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its capital city, San Juan. In 1521, the island was given its formal name, “San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico“, following the custom of christening a town with its formal name and the name which Christopher Columbus had originally given the island. The names “San Juan Bautista” and “Puerto Rico” were eventually used in reference to both city and island, leading to a reversal in terminology by most inhabitants largely due to a cartographic error. By 1746, the city’s name (“Puerto Rico“) had become that of the entire island, while the name for the island (“San Juan Bautista“) had become that of the city. Theofficial motto of Puerto Rico also references the saint: Joannes Est Nomen Eius (Latin for “his name is John”, from Luke 1:63).

He is also a patron saint of French Canada, and Newfoundland. The Canadian cities of St. John’s, Newfoundland (1497) and Saint John, New Brunswick (1604) were both named in his honor. In the United Kingdom, Saint John is the patron of Penzance, Cornwall. His feast day of June 24, celebrated in Quebecas the Fête Nationale du Québec, and in Newfoundland as Discovery Day.

In Scotland, he is the patron saint of Perth, which used to be known as St. John’s Toun of Perth. The main church in the city is still the medieval Kirk of St. John the Baptist and the city’s professional football club is called St Johnstone F.C.

Also, on the night of June 23 on to the 24th, Saint John is celebrated as the patron saint of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. An article from June 2004 in The Guardian remarked that “Porto’s Festa de São João is one of Europe’s liveliest street festivals, yet it is relatively unknown outside the country”.[134]

He is also patron of the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, Malta, Florence, and Genoa, Italy. John is patron saint of Xewkija, Gozo, Malta, which remember him with a great feast on the Sunday nearest to June 24.

Calamba City, Laguna, Calumpit, Bulacan, Balayan and Lian in Batangas, and San Juan, Metro Manilaare among several places in the Philippines that venerate John as the town or city patron. A common practise of many Filipino fiestas in his honour is bathing and the dousing of people in memory of John’s iconic act. The custom is similar in form to Songkran[disambiguation needed] and Holi, and serves as a playful respite from the intense tropical heat. While famed for the Black Nazarene it enshrines, Quiapo Church inManila is actually dedicated to Saint John.

He is also patron of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston, which covers the whole of South Carolinain the United States.

The Baptistines are the name given to a number of religious orders dedicated to the memory of John the Baptist.

Along with John the Evangelist, John the Baptist is claimed as a patron saint by the fraternal society ofFree and Accepted Masons (better known as the Freemasons).[135]

Festivity

See also: St. John’s Eve

In many Mediterranean countries, the summer solstice is dedicated to St. John. The associated ritual is very similar to Midsummer celebrations in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.

See also: Fête St-Jean-Baptiste, Festival of San Juan, Saint Jonas Day, St John’s Day (Estonia), Ivan Kupala Day, and Golowan

Locations, churches, and other establishments in his name

According to Armenian tradition, the remains of John the Baptist were laid to rest by Gregory the Illuminator at the Saint Karapet Monastery.[136][137]

The Catholic Church in Ein Keremon the site where John the Baptist is said to have been born

St John the Baptist (Greek Orthodox) Located on Ha-Notsrim street in the Christian Quarter, OldJerusalem
See also: Church of St. John the Baptist (disambiguation), St. John Baptist Church (disambiguation), andSt. John the Baptist Church (disambiguation)
  • Armenian Apostolic Monastery ofGandzasar,Nagorno Karabakh
  • Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, a 4th-century Armenianmonastery in theTaron province of historic Armeniathat contained the relics of Saint John the Baptist (which were moved there from Caeserea)
  • Maronite Catholic Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, Beit Mery, Lebanon
  • Romanian Skete Prodromos (the name is the Greek for “The Forerunner”) on Mount Athos, holding relics believed to be of John the Baptist
  • St John’s College of The University of Oxford, Oxford, England
  • San Juan del Río, Querétaro, Mexico, was founded on June 24, 1531
  • St. John’s, Newfoundland, was founded on June 24, 1497.
  • Saint John, New Brunswick, was named after the Saint John River which was named by Samuel de Champlain
  • Fête nationale du Québec (also known as la St- Jean-Baptiste) is the provincial holiday of Quebec, celebrated on June 24 of every year
  • Perth, Scotland was originally called “Saint Johnstoun” after Saint John the Baptist, the city’s patron
  • Prince Edward Island, a Canadian province, was originally called Île de St-Jean or St. John’s Island
  • St. John’s University located in Queens, New York; St. John’s is the second largest Roman Catholic university in the United States
  • Mission San Juan Bautista, one of the original 18th-century missions in northern California
  • San Juan, Metro Manila, the Philippines (also known as San Juan del Monte), the city’sPinaglabanan Church is dedicated to this saint
  • The main parish church of Calamba City, Laguna, the Philippines; established in 1859, national hero Dr. José Rizal was christened there in 1861
  • 12th-century cathedral in Kamień Pomorski, Poland, with a famous 17th-century organ
  • St. John Ambulance and the Venerable Order of St. John
  • Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (commonly referred to as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta)
  • The College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University and Saint John’s Abbey in Collegeville, MN
  • The city of Sveti Ivan Zelina and the village of Sveti Ivan Žabno in Croatia were named after John the Baptist; both have churches dedicated to him
  • St. John the Baptist Catholic Parish in Beloit, Kansas, includes St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, St. John the Baptist Catholic Grade School, and St. John’s Catholic High School (Beloit, Kansas).
  • St. John’s Lutheran Church Montebello, California

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